Tuesday 12 September 2017

 Public Knowledge Summary By J.M. Ziman

Science is an integral part of our lives. It provides our environment. "What is science" is a confusing question. We know the evolution of science and its development through many scientists. It is difficult to define poetry because poetry has no definition and a poet is a person who assumes the crown of a poet by himself. Contrary to this, science is methodical and logical. It is very hard and finished and an essential ingredient for human survival.
 Public Knowledge  By J.M. Ziman
 Public Knowledge  By J.M. Ziman

Like religion, art, philosophy, law, etc., science is also a discipline of study. It is a collection of ideas. Science is an intellectual activity. Religion, art and literature appeal to human emotions and it is difficult to express them in words because they affect the emotionality of humans. So all these forms are different from science. How science is different from Humanities is a topic of discussion.

The Analysis Of Public Knowledge  By J.M. Ziman

The most crude definition for science is that "science is the mastery of the environment of man". This definition projects the scientific discoveries that will provide material and mechanical help to human society. But this definition has its disadvantages. Here, science becomes synonymous (equal to) technology. This definition speaks of the applications of science or bears witness to scientific discoveries and inventions. Science like mathematics and cosmology interprets the mysteries of the universe. Any invention or discovery is an application of a theory of science. It is like a food product prepared from a recipe. For example, penicillin is like a building from the plans of the architect named science.

The popular definition of science is that "science is the study of the material world". By this definition we mean that science is the study of matter and religion is the study of the mind. This differentiation between science and religion is defective because psychology and sociology are subjects of science that indicate subjects beyond physical matter. It is true that spiritual questions can not be answered by science. But there are similarities between religion and science. Pure mathematics goes beyond the definition of science. Religion explores a set of hypotheses (what is called belief in religion) to arrive at conclusions, but these hypotheses as in science have no solid evidence.
Science uses the experimental method. Francis Bacon talks about the importance of scientific evidence. The scientific method is an objective method for exploring the secrets of nature. Scientists start from a hypothesis, experiment tools, make an inference, look for evidence and come to a conclusion. Science arrives at the truth by logical inferences from empirical observations. There is no ultimate truth in science. Science is always evolving. It is not easy to come to a conclusion in science. A fact is accepted as "truth" in science if an experiment carried out on the same motif assumes the same result from similar circumstances whenever experience repeats itself. A theory should be universally accepted to be called a scientific discovery. Science is objective and should give an ultimate result for a particular question. Thus, science is a method to reach the ultimate truth.

The conventional definition of science explains it as an attempt by an individual to define the secrets of nature. Science is not an individual activity, but a cooperative action of many scientists of different ages. Thus, scientific research is a social activity like the law. But technology, art and religion are an individual domain where an individual can contribute. Scientists work in an organized way, transmit information and contribute to the system of science.

Professor J.M Ziman argues that scientists contribute to the consensus of universally accepted knowledge. It explains the philosophical, psychological and sociological contributions of science. He calls science an evolved group activity based on the hard work of many scientists of several centuries.


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